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chromium smelting yield from ore

Smelting chrome ore ScienceDirect

Jan 01, 1976· The objective of chrome ore smelting is to convert the chromium into a form t h a t can readily be used by the steelmaker. Although chrome has been smelted in blast furnaces, it more commonly is reduced in submerged-arc electric furnaces. Then, given the appropriate initial composition to yield chromium instead of chromium carbide, further

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Chromium processing Britannica

Chromium processing, preparation of the ore for use in various products. Chromium (Cr) is a brilliant, hard, refractory metal that melts at 1,857 °C (3,375 °F) and boils at 2,672 °C (4,842 °F). In the pure state it is resistant to ordinary corrosion, resulting in its application as an electroplated

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Chromium Ore an overview ScienceDirect Topics

Knowledge of the chromium ore minerals proper and their associated rocks-forming minerals is needed to explore new chromite fields and to predict the efficiency of individual methods for the beneficiation of chromite ores. It is important also to know the physicochemical properties of individual mineral fractions of chromite ores and preparation of ore (or concentrates) for electric smelting

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Chromium Mining Processing Equipment Flow Chart

The only ore of chromium is the mineral chromite and 99 percent of the world’s chromite is found in southern Africa and Zimbabwe. Geologists estimate that there are about 11 billion tons of mineable chromite ore in the world, enough to supply the current demand for hundreds of years. (processing, crushing, separating, smelting, refining

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Chrome Ores on Ferrochrome Smelting

Abstract—Chrome ores from six locations across the Bushveld Igneous Complex in South Africa are used to investigate the effects of ore types on the smelting processes, such as the consumption of fluxes, reductant; and most importantly, the consumption of electricity. The electric energy consumption is highly related to the SiO 2

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Chromium Ore an overview ScienceDirect Topics

Knowledge of the chromium ore minerals proper and their associated rocks-forming minerals is needed to explore new chromite fields and to predict the efficiency of individual methods for the beneficiation of chromite ores. It is important also to know the physicochemical properties of individual mineral fractions of chromite ores and preparation of ore (or concentrates) for electric smelting

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Direct chromium alloying by smelting reduction of mill

The charging materials and reduction parameters were varied and the optimum conditions for obtaining alloy with the highest metallic yield and the highest iron and chromium recovery were determined. When using coke as the reducing agent in stoichiometric amounts, for a mixture of mill scale (55%) and chromite ore (45%), 89.1% of the iron and 72

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US4935054A Method of charging chromium ores in a

This invention relates to a method of checking flying losses of ores and coal when they are charged for carrying out smelting reduction of Cr ores and iron ores. In the invention, the raw materials are charged into the furnace through a chute extending nearly a mouth of the furnace or connected to a furnace body. Further, while gas is jetted toward an outside of the chute from a nozzle

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Process for smelting reduction of chromium ore Kawasaki

We claim: 1. A smelting reduction process of chromium ore by charging a carbonaceous material and a chromium ore into hot metal admitted in a metallurgical reaction vessel such as a converter or the like, feeding an oxygen gas to burn the carbonaceous material and conducting fusion and reduction of the chromium ore through heat of combustion to produce a chromium-containing molten metal

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Chrome Ores on Ferrochrome Smelting

Abstract—Chrome ores from six locations across the Bushveld Igneous Complex in South Africa are used to investigate the effects of ore types on the smelting processes, such as the consumption of fluxes, reductant; and most importantly, the consumption of electricity. The electric energy consumption is highly related to the SiO 2

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Kinetic Study on Smelting Reduction ofChromite Ore

thermodynamic reasons, the smelting of ferrochromium is an energy intensive process. The process has been intensively developed over the years but despite the improvements in submerged arc furnace operations, there is still a need to reduce the energy consumption and to improve the chromium yield

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US4565574A Process for production of high-chromium alloy

A process which enables high-chromium alloy such as ferrochromium heretofore obtained by the use of electricity to be produced less expensively in higher yield of chromium by the smelting reduction using solid carbonaceous material such as coke in the place of electricity. The process of smelting reduction is so performed in the top and bottom blowing converter divided into two stages: the

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DIRECT CHROMIUM ALLOYING BY CHROMITE ORE WITH

DIRECT CHROMIUM ALLOYING BY CHROMITE ORE WITH THE PRESENCE OF METALLIC IRON X. Hua, H. Wangb,*, L. Tenga, S. Seetharamana a Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden b University of Science and Technology, Beijing, China (Received 15 August 2012; accepted 27 May 2013) Abstract Direct chromium alloying by chromite ore in EAF operation is a promising process

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(PDF) DIRECT SINTERING OF CHROMITE ORE FINES FOR

Chromite ore is available in nature mainly in the form of Cr2O3.FeO which contains 40 52% Cr2O3 and 15- 20% FeO by weight. Global annual output of chromite ore is approximately 20 Mt, which has

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Fluxing of South African chromite ore with colemanite

slag that forms on smelting is fluid enough to enable separation of slag and alloy, and tapping from the furnace. Colemanite is a borate mineral, originating primarily from Turkey, and has the nominal, ideal composition of CaB3O4(OH)3·H2O. B2O3 readily fluxes chromite, and low amounts of this compound can yield a similar lowering of melting point

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